Table 5

Response of LDL particle number, LDL size, and small LDL particles to pharmacologic and lifestyle interventions

LDL subclassa

Trial/Center

Intervention

Daily dosage(mg)

Mean follow-up (weeks)

Baseline value ± SD

Mean change (%)

Reference


Total LDL particles

GLAIb

rosiglitazone

4/8

24

1368 ± 372

+8.2

[48]

(nmol/L)

GLAIb

pioglitazone

30/45

24

1394 ± 361

-3.5

[48]

STRRIDEc

exercise

---

~35

1456 ± 86d

-4.5

[31]

VA-HITe

gemfibrozil

1200

~30

1352 ± 316

-4.6

[21]

JUSMHf

bezafibrate

400

4

1722 ± 629

-4.6

[49]

Ornish Programg

lifestyle (F)

---

52

1478 ± 497

-6.1

UMCPh

exercise

---

24

1436 ± 42d

-7.0

[32]

Ornish Programg

lifestyle (M)

---

52

1401 ± 463

-10.4

MCi

pioglitazone

30

19

1420 ± 74d

-10.6

[35]

JUSMHj

fenofibrate

200

8

1567 ± 606

-10.9

[50]

COMPLEMENTk

pioglitazone

30/45

17

1527 ± 473

-12.4

[51]

VCUl

niacin IRm

3000

12

2561 ± 81d

-14.1

[52]

DUn

low-fat diet

---

24

1759

-14.7

[34]

TJUo

niacin ERp

1000

12

1993

-15.0

[53]

MCi

diet/exercise

---

19

1216 ± 55d

-18.8

[35]

PRINCEq

pravastatin

40

12

1540r

-19.0r

[54]

TJUo

niacin ERp

2000

12

2048

-23.0

[53]

PLAC-1s

pravastatin

20–40

~26

1908 ± 304

-24.0

[20]

PLAC-1t

pravastatin

40

~26

1918 ± 292

-25.5

[9]

VCUl

atorvastatin

10

12

2562 ± 77d

-31.4

[52]

CARDSu

atorvastatin

10

26

1572r

-31.6r

[55]

LDL size

CARDSu

atorvastatin

10

26

20.6r

-0.7r

[55]

(nm)

Ornish Programg

lifestyle (F)

---

52

20.5 ± 0.9

0.0

PLAC-1s

pravastatin

20–40

~26

20.7 ± 0.5

+0.3

[20]

PLAC-1t

pravastatin

40

~26

20.7 ± 0.4

+0.5

[9]

PRINCEq

pravastatin

40

12

20.8r

+0.5r

[54]

STRRIDEc

exercise

---

~35

20.8 ± 0.2d

+1.0

[31]

UMCPh

exercise

---

24

21 ± 0.1d

+1.0

[32]

COMPLEMENTk

pioglitazone

30/45

17

20.3 ± 0.7

+1.1

[51]

DUn

low-fat diet

---

24

20.9

+1.4

[34]

VCUl

atorvastatin

10

12

19.8 ± 0.1d

+1.5

[52]

MCi

diet/exercise

---

19

20.6 ± 0.2d

+1.5

[35]

Ornish Programg

lifestyle (M)

---

52

20.0 ± 0.6

+1.6

GLAIb

rosiglitazone

4/8

24

20.1 ± 0.8

+1.6

[48]

TJUo

niacin ERp

1000

12

20.0

+2.0

[53]

MCi

pioglitazone

30

19

20.3 ± 0.2d

+2.0

[35]

TJUo

niacin ERp

2000

12

21.0

+2.0

[53]

GLAIb

pioglitazone

30/45

24

20.0 ± 0.8

+2.3

[48]

VCUl

niacin IRm

3000

12

19.9 ± 0.1d

+2.5

[52]

VA-HITe

gemfibrozil

1200

~30

20.4 ± 0.8

+2.5

[21]

JUSMHj

fenofibrate

200

8

19.7 ± 0.8

+3.8

[50]

JUSMHf

bezafibrate

400

4

19.9 ± 1.0

+3.9

[49]

NEMC/UPSMv

torcetrapib

120

4

20.4 ± 0.9

+4.9

[56]

NEMC/UPSMv

torcetrapib

120/240

8

20.4 ± 0.8

+7.4

[56]

Small LDL

CARDSu

atorvastatin

10

26

599r

+1.8r

[55]

particles (nmol/L)

Ornish Programg

lifestyle (F)

---

52

1076 ± 565

-2.6

GLAIb

rosiglitazone

4/8

24

1142 ± 429

-3.4

[48]

UMCPh

exercise

---

24

966 ± 55d

-13.4

[32]

Ornish Programg

lifestyle (M)

---

52

1145 ± 393

-15.1

COMPLEMENTk

pioglitazone

30/45

17

1188 ± 513

-19.3

[51]

VA-HITe

gemfibrozil

1200

~30

967 ± 406

-19.6

[21]

MCi

pioglitazone

30

19

1119 ± 95d

-20.2

[35]

MCi

diet/exercise

---

19

888 ± 75d

-27.3

[35]


a: determined by NMR spectroscopy, b: 333 (pioglitazone) or 325 (rosiglitazone) type 2 diabetic men and women with dyslipidemia, following 4-week washout period intervention was divided into two 12-week intervals where dosage increased in second interval, subjects instructed to follow American Heart Association Step One diet throughout the intervention, c: Studies of Targeted Risk Reduction Interventions through Defined Exercise – 22 sedentary, overweight men and women with mild to moderate dyslipidemia (high-amount – high-intensity exercise group), d: values are mean ± SE, e: Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial – 515 men with known coronary heart disease, f: Jikei University School of Medicine Hospital – hypertriglyceridemic men (22) and women (2), g: 39 men (M) or 34 women (F) with overt CAD or risk factors who participated in the lifestyle change program, h: University of Maryland, College Park – sedentary healthy men (42) and women (58), subjects followed the American Heart Association Dietary Guidelines for the General Population prior to and throughout exercise training, i: Mayo Clinic – non-diabetic insulin-resistant men (18) and women (19), patients consumed an isocaloric diet for one week prior to baseline and follow-up, j: Jikei University School of Medicine Hospital – 20 hypertriglyceridemic men, k: 295 (baseline) type 2 diabetic men and women with dyslipidemia who received stable doses of rosiglitazone and statins for > 90 days, at enrollment rosiglitazone was discontinued and 30 mg once daily pioglitazone was initiated – at the end of the study, 52% were receiving 30 mg/day, while 48% were receiving 45 mg/day, l: Virginia Commonwealth University – 53 (atorvastatin) or 48 (niacin) men and women with atherogenic dyslipidemia, treatment followed a 6-week lead-in period on a National Cholesterol Education Program Step One diet, m: immediate release (IR), n: Duke University – 60 obese, hyperlipidemic men and women who consumed a low-calorie (1590 kcal/day), low-fat (54 g fat/day) diet for 24 weeks, o: Thomas Jefferson University – 21 (1000 mg) or 20 (2000 mg) men and women with primary hypercholesterolemia, treatment followed an 8-week lead-in phase on an American Heart Association Step One diet, p: extended release (ER), q: Pravastatin Inflammation/CRP Evaluation study – 256 men and women without overt coronary disease, r: median values, s: Pravastatin Limitation of Atherosclerosis in the Coronary Arteries trial – 154 men and women with coronary heart disease, t: Pravastatin Limitation of Atherosclerosis in the Coronary Arteries trial – 130 men and women with coronary heart disease, u: Collaborative AtoRvastatin Diabetes Study – 69 type 2 diabetic men and women with modest dyslipidemia who had a previous myocardial infarction, v: New England Medical Center and University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine – 10 patients received placebo for four weeks then 120 mg torcetrapib daily for four weeks, 6 patients went on to receive 240 mg torcetrapib daily for an additional four weeks.

Decewicz et al. Lipids in Health and Disease 2009 8:26   doi:10.1186/1476-511X-8-26

Open Data