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Small and dense LDL in familial combined hyperlipidemia and N291S polymorphism of the lipoprotein lipase gene

Antonio López-Ruiz1*, María M Jarabo1, María L Martínez-Triguero2, Maria Morales-Suárez-Varela3, Eva Solá14, Celia Bañuls13, Marta Casado5 and Antonio Hernández-Mijares134

Author Affiliations

1 Service of Endocrinology, University Hospital Dr Peset, Valencia, Spain

2 Service of Clinical Analysis, University Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain

3 CIBER CB/06/02/0045 research group, CIBER Actions in Epidemiology and Public Health, Valencia, Spain

4 Medicine Department, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain

5 Institute of Biomedicina of Valencia (CSIC), CIBERehd, Valencia, Spain

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Lipids in Health and Disease 2009, 8:12  doi:10.1186/1476-511X-8-12

Published: 31 March 2009


There is a predominance of small and dense LDL cholesterol particles in familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH). The lipoprotein lipase gene could exert an influence in these circumstances.

To study the relationship of pattern B LDL and lipids with N291S polymorphism of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in FCH patients.

Lipid profile, apolipoproteins, diameter of LDL and N291S polymorphism were determined in 93 patients with FCH and 286 individuals from the general population.

FCH patients with N291S polymorphism showed a lower mean diameter of LDL. FCH patients with pattern B LDL showed higher concentrations of triglycerides, VLDLc, non-HDLc and apo B100 and lower levels of HDLc than those with pattern A. Of FCH patients with polymorphism 87.5% presented pattern B and 12.5% pattern A, while patients without polymorphism presented pattern A in 69.2% cases and pattern B in 30.8% cases, with differences being statistically significant (p < 0.004). The prevalence of this mutation in our FCH patients was 9.7%.

The prevalence of N291S mutation in our FCH patients was similar to the 9.3% described in Dutch FCHL patients but clearly higher than the 2–5% described for other Caucasian populations. No polymorphism was found in our general population sample. FCH patients with phenotype B of LDL possessed an atherogenic lipid profile. The relationship between small and dense LDL and the presence of the N291S mutation may identify patients with high cardiovascular risk.