Model for HSPG activity contributing to fatty acid uptake and intracellular lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) serve as primary binding sites for apoE-enriched VLDL (apoE-VLDL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) on adipocytes. Localization of apoE-VLDL and LPL to the cell surface can create a focal reaction center for triacylglycerol hydrolysis thereby releasing fatty acids for cellular uptake by fatty acid transporters such as FATP1 or CD36. Alternatively, similar to that proposed for hepatic clearance of apoE-VLDL and chylomicron remnants , initial binding to HSPG serves to concentrate lipoprotein particles at the cell surface and their uptake is mediated either by direct HSPG internalization or following their transfer to VLDL-R or LRP.
Wilsie et al. Lipids in Health and Disease 2005 4:2 doi:10.1186/1476-511X-4-2