Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from Lipids in Health and Disease and BioMed Central.

Open Access Highly Accessed Open Badges Research

The role of exercise training on lipoprotein profiles in adolescent males

Majid S Koozehchian1, Farzad Nazem5, Richard B Kreider1, William J Roberts2, Thomas M Best3, Yi Rong4 and Li Zuo2*

Author Affiliations

1 Exercise and Sport Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA

2 Molecular Physiology and Rehabilitation Research Laboratory, Radiologic Sciences and Respiratory Therapy Division, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

3 Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, Sports Health & Performance Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

4 Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

5 Department of Health & Kinesiology, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174, Iran

For all author emails, please log on.

Lipids in Health and Disease 2014, 13:95  doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-95

Published: 9 June 2014



Major cardiovascular disorders are being recognized earlier in life. In this study we examined the effects of swimming and soccer training on male adolescent lipid-lipoprotein profiles relative to a maturity matched control group to determine the effects of these exercises on specific cardiovascular risk and anti-risk factors.


Forty five adolescent males (11.81 ± 1.38 yr) including swimmers (SW), soccer players (SO), and non-athlete, physically active individuals as controls (C), participated in this study. Training groups completed 12-wk exercise programs on three non-consecutive days per week. Plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein B (apoB), total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured in control, pre-training, during-training, and post-training.


In response to the 12-wk training period, the SO group demonstrated a decrease in the mean LDL level compared to the SW and C (SW: 0.15%; SO: −9.51%; C: 19.59%; p < 0.001) groups. There was an increase in both the SW and SO groups vs. the control in mean HDL (SW: 5.66%; SO: 3.07%; C: −7.21%; p < 0.05) and apoA-I (SW: 3.86%; SO: 5.48%; C: −1.01%; p < 0.05). ApoB was considerably lower in the training groups vs. control (SW: −9.52%; SO: −13.87%; C: 21.09%; p < 0.05). ApoA-I/apoB ratio was significantly higher in training groups vs. control (SW: 16.74%; SO: 23.71%; C: −17.35%; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between groups for other factors.


The favorable alterations in LDL, HDL, apoA-I, and apoB observed in the training groups suggest that both regular swimming or soccer exercise can potentially mitigate cardiovascular risk in adolescent males.

Cardiovascular risk; Anti-risk factors; Cholesterol; Lipids