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In vivo effect of two first-line ART regimens on inflammatory mediators in male HIV patients

Vasiliki D Papakonstantinou1*, Maria Chini2, Nikos Mangafas2, George M Stamatakis1, Nickolaos Tsogas2, Alexandros B Tsoupras1, Katherina Psarra3, Elizabeth Fragopoulou4, Smaragdi Antonopoulou4, Panagiotis Gargalianos5, Constantinos A Demopoulos1 and Marios-C Lazanas2

Author Affiliations

1 Faculty of Chemistry, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis Zografou, 15771 Athens, Greece

2 3rd Internal Medicine Department-Infectious Diseases Unit, Red Cross General Hospital, Athens, Greece

3 Department of Immunology and Histocompatibility, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece

4 Department of Science Nutrition-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece

5 1st Internal Medicine Department-Infectious Diseases Unit, “G. Gennimatas” Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Lipids in Health and Disease 2014, 13:90  doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-90

Published: 29 May 2014



Persistent immune activation and inflammation are lying behind HIV-infection even in the setting of ART mediated viral suppression. The purpose of this study is to define the in vivo effect of two first-line ART regimens on certain inflammatory mediators in male HIV patients.


Male, naive, HIV-infected volunteers were assigned either to tenofovir-DF/emtricitabine/efavirenz (Group_T) or abacavir/lamivudine/efavirenz (Group_A). Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) levels and metabolic enzymes together with HIV-implicated cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNFa) and VEGF were determined for a 12-month period. Differences within each group were determined by non-parametric Friedman and Wilcoxon test, while the differences between the groups were checked by ANOVA repeated measures.


Both ART regimens present pronounced effect on inflammatory mediators, resulting in decreased PAF levels and Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity for tenofovir-containing regimen and same as baseline PAF levels with a peak though at the 3rd month as well as elevated Lp-PLA2 activity for abacavir-containing regimen.


Studies regarding the effect of first-line ART regimens on inflammation may be beneficial in preventing chronic morbidities during HIV-treatment. From this point of view, the present study suggests an anti-inflammatory effect of tenofovir-containing ART, while the temporary increase of PAF levels in abacavir-containing ART may be the link between the reported cardiovascular risk and abacavir administration.

Platelet activating factor; Cytokines; Inflammation; Human immunodeficiency virus; Cardiovascular disease; Tenofovir-DF; Abacavir; Efavirenz