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Clusterin/Apolipoprotein J immunolocalization on carotid artery is affected by TNF-alpha, cigarette smoking and anti-platelet treatment

Amalia E Yanni1*, George Agrogiannis2, Christos Gkekas3 and Despina Perrea4

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, 70 El Venizelou Ave, Athens, Greece

2 Department of Pathology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Goudi, Athens, Greece

3 Department of Vascular Surgery, Red Cross Hospital, 1 Athanasaki Str, Athens, Greece

4 Laboratory of Experimental Surgery and Surgery Research, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15B Ag Thoma Str, Goudi, Athens, Greece

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Lipids in Health and Disease 2014, 13:70  doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-70

Published: 23 April 2014



Clusterin (CLU) /Apolipoprotein J is a protein biosensor of oxidative stress and inflammation, which is upregulated in many pathological processes including atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown that in aortic tissue, CLU expression increases with atherosclerotic lesion progression and it has been coupled with vascular damage and coronary artery disease. A few studies enter into CLU and carotid atherosclerosis while the apolipoprotein’s expression on human carotid tissue and its association with parameters related to the disease development has not been examined. The present study was designed to reveal the relationships between the degree of CLU immunolocalization on carotid artery and demographic characteristics, blood parameters and pharmacological treatment of patients underwent internal carotid artery endarterectomy.


CLU expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 42 carotid endarterectomy specimens. Patients’ serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and classical parameters related to atherosclerosis such as lipid profile, as well as thrombosis related parameters such as fibrinogen, antithrombin III, protein C and protein S were determined. Demographic characteristics, smoking habits and the use of medications were recorded. Comparisons between groups were performed by students’t-test and analysis of variance. Independent associations with CLU expression on carotid tissue were denoted by linear regression analysis.


CLU imuunolocalization was denser in smokers than in non-smokers (p = 0.041) while it was rarefied in specimens of patients on cropidogrel treatment (p = 0.045) compared to the rest not taking this medication. Clopidogrel intake was independent predictor of lower CLU expression on carotid artery (p =0.045). CLU was positively correlated with serum TNF-a concentration (r = 0.33, p = 0.040) that was independent predictor of higher expression of the apolipoprotein (p = 0.001). IL-6, hsCRP and classical parameters related to atherosclerosis and thrombosis were not associated with CLU immunolocalization.


Our study suggests that CLU expression on carotid artery is affected by TNF-alpha, cigarette smoking confirming its association with oxidative and cellular stress and anti-platelet medication reflecting the protective effects of such pharmacological treatment on vascular wall.

Apolipoprotein J/Clusterin; Carotid artery disease; Cellular stress; Inflammation; Anti-platelet treatment; Tumor necrosis factor-a; Smoking