Markers of increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease
Lipids in Health and Disease 2014, 13:135 doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-135Published: 21 August 2014
Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CAD). The aim of the study was to determine markers of increased risk of CAD and to achieve a better understanding of agents implicated in the process of atherosclerosis in CKD patients.
The study group consisted of a total of 139 patients with CKD while the control group comprised 45 healthy volunteers. Concentrations of osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, osteocalcin, matrix ?-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) protein (MGP), fetuin A, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) and renalase were measured by the ELISA method.
We observed decreased levels of fetuin A (control vs. CKD group: 37.5 vs. 33.2?ng/ml, p?=?0.018), and increased concentrations of osteocalcin (control vs. CKD group: 9.1???6.0 vs. 13.6???10.3?ng/ml, p?=?0.05), MMP-2 (113.1???75.0 vs. 166.0???129.9?ng/ml, p?=?0.045), TIMP-2 (22.1???5.1 vs. 25.4???7,0?ng/ml, p?=?0.005) and renalase (251.0???157 vs. 316.1???155.3?ng/ml, p?=?0.026). In patients with CKD (in comparison to control group), left ventricle ejection fraction: 53.0???3,5% vs. 48.5%, p?=?0.012) and calcification of the aortic valve (9.5% vs. 39.8%, p?=?0.008) were observed more frequently.
Decreased levels of fetuin A and increased concentration of osteocalcin, renalase, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 suggest that these factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of CAD in patients with CKD. Significantly increased indices of cardiac hypertrophy and its dysfunction in patients with CKD are indicators of pathological mechanisms occurring in cardiovascular system in this group of patients.