Effect of n-3 and n-6 unsaturated fatty acids on prostate cancer (PC-3) and prostate epithelial (RWPE-1) cells in vitro
1 Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China
2 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Biosystems Engineering & Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
3 School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
4 UND Life Sciences, 2020 S 360th St, K-202, Federal Way, WA 98003, USA
5 School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada 533 003, India
6 Department of Medicine, GVP Hospital and Bio-Science Research Centre, Campus of GVP College of Engineering, Visakhapatnam 530 048, India
Lipids in Health and Disease 2013, 12:160 doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-160Published: 29 October 2013
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of death in the elderly men. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) regulate proliferation of cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of various PUFAs on the proliferation and survival of human prostate cancer (PC-3) and human prostate epithelial (RWPE-1) cells in vitro.
LA, GLA, AA, ALA, EPA and DHA (linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid respectively) when tested at 50, 100, 150, and 200 μM inhibited proliferation of RWPE-1 and PC-3 cells, except that lower concentrations of LA (25 μM) and GLA (5, 10 μM) promoted proliferation. Though all fatty acids tested produced changes in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), lipoxin A4 and free radical generation by RWPE-1 and PC-3 cells, there were significant differences in their ability to do so. As expected, supplementation of various n-3 and n-6 fatty acids to RWPE-1 and PC-3 cells enhanced the content of the added fatty acids and their long-chain metabolites in these cells. In contrast to previous results, we did not find any direct correlation between inhibition of cell proliferation induced by various fatty acids and free radical generation. These results suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress proliferation of normal and tumor cells by a variety of mechanisms that may partly depend on the type(s) of cell(s) being tested and the way these fatty acids are handled by the cells. Hence, it is suggested that more deeper and comprehensive studies are needed to understand the actions of fatty acids on the growth of normal and tumor cells.