Age-dependent effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on lipid metabolism and lipid accumulation in liver and kidney of rats
1 Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Morro do Cruzeiro, Ouro Preto, MG 35 400-000, Brazil
2 Núcleo de Pesquisa em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil
3 Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
4 Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Núcleo de Pesquisa em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil
Lipids in Health and Disease 2013, 12:136 doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-136Published: 18 September 2013
The metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by variable coexistence of metabolic and pathophysiological alterations which are important risk factors for developing of type II diabetes and/or cardiovascular diseases. Increased of MS patients in worldwide has stimulated the development of experimental models. However, it is still challenging to find an dietetic model that most closely approximates human MS and, in addition, is not yet fully established the effect of different diets of MS in lipid metabolism in rats of different ages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different diets of MS in lipid metabolism and ectopic fat deposition and define the most appropriate diet for inducing the characteristic disturbances of the human MS in rats of different ages.
Young (4 weeks old) and adult rats (12 weeks old) were given a high-fat (FAT) or high-fructose diet (FRU) for 13 weeks and biochemical, physiological, histological and biometric parameters were evaluated.
In young rats, the FAT diet induced increased mean blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), body weight after 6 to 10 weeks, and in the 13th week, increased the liver, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and epididymal fat weights, fasting glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and reduced HDL cholesterol; and also induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and renal inflammatory infiltrates. In adult rats, the FRU diet induced transient elevations of MAP and HR in the 6th week, and, at 13 weeks, increased fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, AST and ALT; increased liver, kidneys and retroperitoneal fat weights; and induced macrovesicular and microvesicular NAFLD, the presence of fat cells in the kidney, glomerular sclerosis, and liver and kidney inflammation. Additionally, the FAT and FRU diets induced, respectively, increases in liver glycogen in adults and young rats.
Our data show that FRU diet in adult rats causes biggest change on metabolism of serum lipids and lipid accumulation in liver and kidney, while the FAT diet in young rats induces elevation of MAP and HR and higher increased visceral lipid stores, constituting the best nutritional interventions to induce MS in rats.