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Open Access Research

Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth) effects on LDL oxidation in elderly people: an in vitro and in vivo study

Rafael de Lima Portella1, Rômulo Pillon Barcelos1, Edovando José Flores da Rosa1, Euler Esteves Ribeiro2, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz123, Leila Suleiman1 and Felix Alexandre Antunes Soares1*

  • * Corresponding author: Felix Alexandre Antunes Soares felix@ufsm.br

Author Affiliations

1 Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Campus UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

2 Universidade Aberta da Terceira Idade, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Amazonas, Brazil

3 Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Campus UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

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Lipids in Health and Disease 2013, 12:12  doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-12

Published: 8 February 2013

Abstract

Background

Previous experimental investigations have suggested that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, supplied by EMBRAPA Oriental) consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic diseases and has positive effects on lipid metabolism, mainly related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. As LDL oxidation is an important initial event in the development of atherosclerosis, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to observe the potential effects of guaraná on LDL and serum oxidation.

Methods

The in vivo protocol was performed using blood samples from 42 healthy elderly subjects who habitually ingested guaraná (GI) or never ingested guaraná (NG). The formation of conjugated dienes (CDs) was analyzed from serum samples. The in vitro protocols were performed using LDL obtained from 3 healthy, non-fasted, normolipidemic voluntary donors who did not habitually ingest guaraná in their diets. The LDL samples were exposed to 5 different guaraná concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/mL).

Results

GI subjects demonstrated lower LDL oxidation than did NG subjects (reduction of 27%, p < 0.0014), independent of other variables. In the GI group the total polyphenols was positively associated with LDL levels. Also, guaraná demonstrated a high antioxidant activity in vitro, mainly at concentrations of 1 and 5 μg/mL, demonstrated by suppression of CDs and TBARS productions, tryptophan destruction and high TRAP activity.

Conclusions

Guaraná, similar to other foods rich in caffeine and catechins such as green tea, has some effect on LDL oxidation that could partially explain the protective effects of this food in cardiometabolic diseases.

Keywords:
Lipoperoxidation; Humans; Antioxidant; Plant extract