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Long-term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects

Nancy P Aptekmann and Thais B Cesar*

Author Affiliations

Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP1 14801-902, Brazil

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Lipids in Health and Disease 2013, 12:119  doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-119

Published: 6 August 2013

Abstract

Background

This study investigated the hypothesis that long-term orange juice consumption (≥ 12 months) was associated with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adult men and women with normal and moderately high cholesterol blood levels.

Methods

The sample consisted of 103 men (18–66 y) and 26 women (18–65 y); all were employees of an orange juice factory with daily access to free orange juice. The results showed that 41% of the individuals consumed 2 cups (480 mL) of orange juice per day for at least twelve months, while 59% of the volunteers are non-consumers of orange juice.

Results

Orange juice consumers with normal serum lipid levels had significantly lower total cholesterol (−11%, p <0.001), LDL-cholesterol (−18%, p < 0.001), apolipoprotein B (apo B) (−12%, p < 0.01) and LDL/HDL ratio (−12%, p < 0.04) in comparison to non-consumers, as did the consumers with moderate hypercholesterolemia: lower total cholesterol (−5%, p <0.02), LDL-cholesterol (−12%, p <0.03), apolipoprotein B (−12%, p <0.01) and LDL/HDL ratio (−16%, p <0.05) in comparison the non-consumers counterparts. Serum levels of homocysteine, HDL- cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-1, body composition and the dietary intake of food energy and macronutrients did not differ among orange juice consumers and non-consumers, but vitamin C and folate intake was higher in orange juice consumers.

Conclusion

Long-term orange juice consumers had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and LDL/HDL ratio and an improvement of folate and vitamin C in their diet.

Keywords:
Orange juice; LDL-cholesterol; Apo B; Homocysteine; Humans

Resumo

Introdução

O presente estudo investigou a hipótese de que o consumo de suco de laranja a longo prazo (≥ 12 meses) foi associado com menor fator de risco para doença cardiovascular em homens e mulheres adultos com nível normal e moderadamente alto de colesterol no sangue.

Métodos

A amostra foi composta por 103 homens (18–66 anos) e 26 mulheres (18–65 anos) todos eram funcionários de uma fábrica de suco de laranja com acesso diário e gratuito ao suco de laranja. Os resultados mostraram que 41% dos indivíduos consumiram dois copos (480 mL) de suco de laranja por dia durante pelo menos 12 meses, enquanto 59% dos voluntários não eram consumidores de suco de laranja.

Resultados

Os consumidores de suco de laranja com níveis normais de lipídeos séricos apresentaram menor teor de colesterol total (−11% p < 0.001), LDL-colesterol (−18%, p <0.001), apolipoproteína B (apo B) (−12%, p <0.01) e LDL/HDL (−12%, p <0.04) em comparação com os não-consumidores; assim como os consumidores com hipercolesterolemia moderada (−5% p <0.02), LDL-colesterol (−12%, p <0.03), apolipoproteína B (−12%, p <0.01) e LDL/HDL (−16%, p <0.05) em comparação aos seus pares de não-consumidores. Os níveis séricos de homocisteína, HDL-colesterol e apolipoproteína A-1, a composição corporal e a ingestão de energia e de macronutrientes da dieta não diferiram entre os consumidores de suco de laranja e não-consumidores, mas a vitamina C e o folato estavam mais elevados na dieta nos consumidores de suco de laranja.

Conclusão

Os consumidores de suco de laranja de longo prazo apresentaram menores níveis de colesterol total, LDL-colesterol, apo B e razão LDL/HDL e uma melhoria nos níveis de folato e vitamina C nas suas dietas.

Keywords:
Suco de laranja LDL-colesterol; Apo B; Homocisteína; Humanos