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Open Access Research

Effects of Angiotensin II Type 1 receptor blocker and adiponectin on adipocyte dysfunction in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

Kumiko Takemori1*, Takao Inoue2 and Hiroyuki Ito3

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University 3327-204, Nakamachi Nara-City, Nara 631-8505, Japan

2 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kinki University 377-2 Ohno-Higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511, Japan

3 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kinki University 930 Nishi-mitani, Kinokawa, Wakayama 649-6493, Japan

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Lipids in Health and Disease 2013, 12:108  doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-108

Published: 22 July 2013

Abstract

Background

Hypoadiponectinemia in lipoatrophy may be related to worsening of hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). One of the beneficial effects of candesartan (Angiotensin II Type 1 receptor blocker) for preventing hypertension may be increasing of adiponectin due to improvement of adipocyte dysfunction. In this study, we determined the effects of candesartan or adiponectin on pathophysiologic features and adipocyte dysfunction in SHRSP.

Methods

Candesartan was administered to male SHRSP from 16 to 20 weeks of age (2 mg/kg/day). Adiponectin was cloned and intravenously administered to male SHRSP from 16 to 20 weeks of age. We examined biological parameters, as well as the expression and release of adipokines.

Results

The SHRSP exhibited severe atrophy of visceral fat and progression of severe hypertension. The expression and release of leptin and adiponectin were impaired at 6 and 20 weeks of age. Candesartan suppressed the development of lipoatrophy and reduced the incidence of stroke at 20 weeks of age. Candesartan also enhanced the expression of adiponectin and leptin by inducing the overexpression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ. Circulating level of leptin was significantly higher in candesartan group than in the control group, whereas adiponectin was similar in both groups. Intravenous administration of adiponectin resulted in enhancement of adiponectin expression in adipose tissue, but no remarkable effects were found in pathophysiology in SHRSP.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that candesartan protects against hypertension and adipocyte dysfunction in SHRSP. The induction of leptin expression appeared to be important factor in the inhibition of stroke lesions, whereas adiponectin was not a major regulator of blood pressure in SHRSP with genetic hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of the renin–angiotensin system in adipose tissue dysfunction in relation to hypertensive end-organ damage.

Keywords:
Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats; Adipose tissue; Renin–angiotensin system; Angiotensin II type I receptor blocker; Lipoatrophy; Adipokines