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Open Access Research

Involvement of toll-like receptor 2 and 4 in association between dyslipidemia and osteoclast differentiation in apolipoprotein E deficient rat periodontium

Takaaki Tomofuji, Daisuke Ekuni*, Tetsuji Azuma, Koichiro Irie, Yasumasa Endo, Kenta Kasuyama, Toshiki Yoneda and Manabu Morita

Author Affiliations

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, 700-8558, Okayama, Kita-ku, Japan

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Lipids in Health and Disease 2013, 12:1  doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-1

Published: 8 January 2013

Abstract

Background

Dyslipidemia increases circulating levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and this may induce alveolar bone loss through toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dyslipidemia on osteoclast differentiation associated with TLR2 and TLR4 in periodontal tissues using a rat dyslipidemia (apolipoprotein E deficient) model.

Methods

Levels of plasma OxLDL, and the cholesterol and phospholipid profiles in plasma lipoproteins were compared between apolipoprotein E-deficient rats (16-week-old males) and wild-type (control) rats. In the periodontal tissue, we evaluated the changes in TLR2, TLR4, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression.

Results

Apolipoprotein E-deficient rats showed higher plasma levels of OxLDL than control rats (p<0.05), with higher plasma levels of total cholesterol (p<0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05) and lower plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.05). Their periodontal tissue also exhibited a higher ratio of RANKL-positive cells and a higher number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts than control rats (p<0.05). Furthermore, periodontal gene expression of TLR2, TLR4 and RANKL was higher in apolipoprotein E-deficient rats than in control rats (p<0.05).

Conclusion

These findings underscore the important role for TLR2 and TLR4 in mediating the osteoclast differentiation on alveolar bone response to dyslipidemia.

Keywords:
Apolipoprotein E-deficient model; Alveolar bone; Toll-like receptor 2; Toll-like receptor 4; Osteoclast differentiation