Involvement of toll-like receptor 2 and 4 in association between dyslipidemia and osteoclast differentiation in apolipoprotein E deficient rat periodontium
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, 700-8558, Okayama, Kita-ku, Japan
Lipids in Health and Disease 2013, 12:1 doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-1Published: 8 January 2013
Dyslipidemia increases circulating levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and this may induce alveolar bone loss through toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dyslipidemia on osteoclast differentiation associated with TLR2 and TLR4 in periodontal tissues using a rat dyslipidemia (apolipoprotein E deficient) model.
Levels of plasma OxLDL, and the cholesterol and phospholipid profiles in plasma lipoproteins were compared between apolipoprotein E-deficient rats (16-week-old males) and wild-type (control) rats. In the periodontal tissue, we evaluated the changes in TLR2, TLR4, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression.
Apolipoprotein E-deficient rats showed higher plasma levels of OxLDL than control rats (p<0.05), with higher plasma levels of total cholesterol (p<0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05) and lower plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.05). Their periodontal tissue also exhibited a higher ratio of RANKL-positive cells and a higher number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts than control rats (p<0.05). Furthermore, periodontal gene expression of TLR2, TLR4 and RANKL was higher in apolipoprotein E-deficient rats than in control rats (p<0.05).
These findings underscore the important role for TLR2 and TLR4 in mediating the osteoclast differentiation on alveolar bone response to dyslipidemia.