Hypothetical scheme illustrating the possible biochemical pathways for the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) by endothelial cells under physiological conditions, including specific pharmacological tools that are used to study the vascular function (blue lines). The predominant pathways that lead to normal endothelial vasodilation are indicated by thick lines/arrows. Abbreviations: AA, arachidonic acid; AC, adenylate cyclase; BH4, tetrahydrobiopterin; cAMP, 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate; cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate; Cox, cyclooxygenases; EDHF, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor; EET, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids; eNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; L-arg, L-arginine; L-NAME, L-nitroarginine methylester; Lox, lipoxygenases; NADPH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; •O2-, superoxide anion; •ONOO-, peroxynitrite; PDE5, phosphodiesterase type 5; PGI2, prostacyclin; sGC, soluble guanylyl cyclase; SOD, superoxide dismutase; SNP, sodium nitroprusside.
Meyrelles et al. Lipids in Health and Disease 2011 10:211 doi:10.1186/1476-511X-10-211