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Open Access Research

High-fat meal effect on LDL, HDL, and VLDL particle size and number in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering drugs and diet network (GOLDN): an interventional study

Mary K Wojczynski1, Stephen P Glasser2, Albert Oberman2, Edmond K Kabagambe3, Paul N Hopkins4, Michael Y Tsai5, Robert J Straka6, Jose M Ordovas7 and Donna K Arnett3*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; Current Address: Division of Statistical Genomics, Department of Genetics, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA

2 Division of Preventive Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

3 Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

4 Department of Cardiovascular Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA

5 Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

6 Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

7 Department of Nutrition and Genetics, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA

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Lipids in Health and Disease 2011, 10:181  doi:10.1186/1476-511X-10-181

Published: 18 October 2011



Postprandial lipemia (PPL) is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease but these changes have not been well described and characterized in a large cohort. We assessed acute changes in the size and concentration of total and subclasses of LDL, HDL, and VLDL particles in response to a high-fat meal. Participants (n = 1048) from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study who ingested a high-fat meal were included in this analysis. Lipids were measured at 0 hr (fasting), 3.5 hr, and 6 hr after a standardized fat meal. Particle size distributions were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analyses were stratified by baseline triglycerides (normal vs. elevated) and gender. The effect of PPL on changes in lipoprotein subclasses was assessed using repeated measures ANOVA.


Postprandially, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and triglycerides increased regardless of baseline triglyceride status, with the largest increases in VLDL-C and TG; however, those with elevated triglycerides demonstrated larger magnitude of response. Total LDL particle number decreased over the 6-hour time interval, mostly from a decrease in the number of small LDL particles. Similarly, total VLDL particle number decreased due to reductions in medium and small VLDL particles. Large VLDL particles and chylomicrons demonstrated the largest increase in concentration. HDL particles demonstrated minimal overall changes in total particle number.


We have characterized the changes in LDL and VLDL particle number, and their subclass patterns following a high-fat meal.

postprandial lipemia; lipoprotein particles; NMR; high-fat meal